Metabolites of ginsenosides as novel breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors

Jin J, Shahi S, Kang HK, et al. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Volume 345, Issue 4, 14 July 2006, Pages 1308–1314

ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCG2 gene and alternatively referred to as the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein.
We have previously shown ginsenosides derived from Panax ginseng exert opposing effects on angiogenesis. Here, we examined protopanaxadiol-containing ginsenosides (Rg3, Rh2, and PPD) and protopanaxatriol-containing ginsenosides (Rg1, Rh1, and PPT) as potential inhibitors of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Among these ginsenosides, metabolites Rh2, PPD, and PPT significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of mitoxantrone (MX) to human breast carcinoma MCF-7/MX cells which overexpress BCRP. PPD was the most potent followed by Rh2 and PPT. This effect was not seen in sensitive MCF-7 cells. Rg3, Rg1, and Rh1 were ineffective in either MCF-7 or MCF-7/MX cells. PPD, Rh2, and PPT were able to inhibit MX efflux in MCF-7/MX cells. PPD and Rh2 also increased MX uptake. In inside out membrane vesicles from Lactococcus lactis cells expressing BCRP, only PPD was found to significantly inhibit BCRP-associated vanadate sensitive ATPase activity. These results indicate that metabolites PPD, Rh2, and PPT were inhibitors of BCRP.

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